Tuesday, 27 June 2017, 10:50 AM
Site: UN Reflection Series
Course: E-Library (E-Library)
Glossary: MICs from A-Z
A

Agenda 2030

is a universal and transformative Agenda and a plan of action for people, planet and prosperity. It seeks to strengthen universal peace and eradicate poverty in all its forms and dimensions which is the greatest global challenge and an indispensable requirement for sustainable development. All countries and all stakeholders, acting in collaborative partnership, are committed to implement this plan within the next 15 years until 2030.

B

Behavioural Science

explores the activities and interactions among human beings. It substantiates complexity theory in that they both reinforce the idea that development is a non-linear process that relies on the endogenous properties of the system itself.

(Retrieved from Kirit Patel’s article “Embracing complexity in the UN Development System: Facilitating Middle-income Countries to break the Middle-income Trap”, prepared for the UN Reflection Series)

C

Civil Society

is seen as a social sphere separate from both the state and the market. The increasingly accepted understanding of the term civil society organizations (CSOs) is that of non-state, not-for-profit, voluntary organizations formed by people in that social sphere. This term is used to describe a wide range of organizations, networks, associations, groups and movements that are independent from government and that sometimes come together to advance their common interests through collective action. Traditionally, civil society includes all organizations that occupy the 'social space' between the family and the state, excluding political parties and firms. Some definitions of civil society also include certain businesses, such as the media, private schools, and for-profit associations, while others exclude them.

(World Health Organization)

Complex Adaptive Systems

Complexity theory involves the study of complex systems which are characterized by nonlinear interactions between many elements. It reveals how such interactions can bring about qualitatively new structures and how the whole is related to and different from its individual components. This contrasts to the traditional view between cause and effect, where simple rules imply simple behaviours and, therefore, complicated behaviour must arise from complicated rules. When applied to sustainable development, it centres on the notion that such processes are holistic and that development is not a series of individual successes, but a property of a system as a whole.

(Retrieved from Kirit Patel’s article “Embracing complexity in the UN Development System: Facilitating Middle-income Countries to break the Middle-income Trap”, prepared for the UN Reflection Series)

 

COP21

This is the 21st Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP21/CMP11), held from 30 November to 11 December 2015. This Framework Convention is a universal convention of principle, acknowledging the existence of anthropogenic (human-induced) climate change and giving industrialized countries the major responsibility for combating it.  In Paris, 195 UN Member States have signed the deal that is designed to limit greenhouse gas emissions and prevent an average global temperature increase of 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times.

D

Data Revolution

This is a UN-led effort to improve data collection and analysis for achieving and monitoring the Sustainable Development Goals. The aims are to

  1. foster and promote innovation to fill data gaps;

  2. mobilize resources to overcome inequalities between developed and developing countries and between data-poor and data-rich people.

  3. play a lead role in the coordination of the data revolution to ensure the full realization of sustainable development.

Development Cooperation

follows four criteria; it:

  1. aims explicitly to support national or international development priorities,

  2. is not driven by profit,

  3. discriminates in favour of developing countries, and

  4. is based on cooperative relationships that seek to enhance developing country ownership.

There are different forms of development cooperation, from financial transfers to technology facilitation to capacity support and policy change. Sources include public and private both international and domestic resources. The purpose of development cooperation is to (1) guarantee universal basic human rights, (2) promote convergence among countries’ standards of living, and (3) support efforts of developing countries to actively participate in the provision of international public goods; achieving the goals of the new Sustainable Development Agenda 2030

(Development Cooperation Forum)

H

High Income Countries

are defined by the World Bank as countries with a GNI per capita of more than $12,735 (calculated by the World bank Atlas mehtod). Currently there are 80 countries in this category.

For a list of all HICs, please click here.

L

Low Income Countries

are defined by the World Bank as countries with a GNI per capita of less than $1,046 (calculated by the World bank Atlas mehtod). Currently there are 31 countries in this category.

For a list of all LICs, please click here.

M

Middle Income Countries (MICs)

are defined by the World Bank as countries with a GNI per capita of $1,046 to $12,735 (calculated by the World bank Atlas mehtod). Lower-middle-income and upper-middle-income economies are separated at a GNI per capita of $4,125. Currently there are 104 MICs which vary significantly in size, population, and national  income facing a number of different development challenges. This heterogenous group accounts for five billion people - 73% of the world’s poor - and approx. one third of the global GDP.

For a list of all MICs, please click here.